Preliminary presentation of the results of archaeological excavations of the Interreg VA Slovakia-Hungary Cooperation Program "Living Heritage" project (SKHU / 1601 / 1.1 / 267) in the Baglyas-kő of Salgotarján

The Árpádian castle of the Baglyas-kő of Salgótarján was known to archaeological science so far only from written sources. Planned field exploration (excavation) has not yet been carried out in the area. The current grant source provided the first opportunity for basic research in the field. The excavations were managed by the Dornyay Museum in Salgótarján.

Non-destructive investigations performed prior to the commencement of the excavation work were carried out using state-of-the-art methods. Prior to the identification of the exploration slips, the site was subjected to laser remote sensing (LiDAR) surveys and drone shots were made. Areas not covered with woody vegetation were also surveyed by radar surveys, which showed objects at a depth of 1.5-2 m using electromagnetic pulses. Surface research was also carried out using a metal detector method.  Based on the results of the investigations, 4 excavation profiles were selected at the points where the signs are likely to indicate archaeological phenomena. These sites were directly at the basalt rock and at the second plateau and foot of the high ground.

1. Oskori csiszolt csonttu

In the course of the research it was possible to uncover a part of the double defensive line belonging to the Árpád-era castle built in the 1200s. It is known from sources that in the early 1300s the castle was owned by the Kacsics family to the provincial governor Matúš Čák and after he had lost against King Károly Róbert, the castle was abandoned. However, the findings of the metal detector have already refuted the earlier knowledge, since in addition to the Árpádian period, findings from the Hussite period and post-Mohács period from the Ferdinand period were found, so there were later periods of the castle.

During the excavations the early Árpádian age were not discovered, however XIII, XIV, XV, XVI. and XVII. century findings have been found. It can be concluded that the Árpádian castle, which was destroyed in the early 1300s, was re-used in later battles and the defenses were strengthened. As the research has shown in other castles in Nógrád, Baglyas-kő could have played a protective role during the Hussite, Turkish and Rákóczi War of Independence.

5. Arpad kori becsi ezust filler

Prehistoric finds have been collected from the area before, some of which were known before the research began. As expected, prehistoric finds were detected in all sections, but only two sections (sections 3-4) were discovered.
Among them were 3 kilns, 3 piles and 1 pit, which suggests that a part of the settlement had been uncovered. The ceramic fragments found reveal that several cultures have left their mark in prehistoric times.

Numerous remnants of Neolithic / second half of Middle Neolithic, Middle Copper and Late Copper cultures, Early / Middle Bronze Hatvani Age and Late Bronze Age Kyjatice cultures were found. Prehistoric objects have been severely cut and shaken by medieval objects, so we can talk about their secondary position, disrupted phenomena, and the artifacts found in them.

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